The Spanish (ruled by Franco) had backed Macías in the election due to his perceived loyalty, however while on the campaign trail he had proven to be far less easy to handle than they had expected. Pan-African styles like soukous and makossa are popular, as are reggae and rock and roll. Yet despite its impressive GNI figure, Equatorial Guinea is plagued by extreme poverty because its Gini coefficient of 65.0 is the highest in the entire world. It is the location of Bata, Equatorial Guinea's largest city, and Ciudad de la Paz, the country's planned future capital. Most African ethnic groups speak Bantu languages. , In June 2014 four cases of polio were reported, the country's first outbreak of the disease. For the USSR, there was an advantage to be gained in the War in Angola from access to Luba base and later on to Malabo International Airport. The first phase consisted of little more than a continuation of previous policies; these closely resembled the policies of Portugal and France, notably in dividing the population into a vast majority governed as 'natives' or non-citizens, and a very small minority (together with whites) admitted to civic status as emancipados, assimilation to the metropolitan culture being the only permissible means of advancement. Due to the large oil industry in the country, internationally recognized carriers fly to Malabo International Airport which, in May 2014, had several direct connections to Europe and West Africa. The Cross-Sanaga-Bioko coastal forests ecoregion covers most of Bioko and the adjacent portions of Cameroon and Nigeria on the African mainland, and the Mount Cameroon and Bioko montane forests ecoregion covers the highlands of Bioko and nearby Mount Cameroon. Coastal ethnic groups, sometimes referred to as Ndowe or "Playeros" (Beach People in Spanish): Combes, Bujebas, Balengues, and Bengas on the mainland and small islands, and Fernandinos, a Krio community on Bioko Island together comprise 5% of the population.  Apart from allegedly committing genocide against the ethnic minority Bubi people, Macias Nguema ordered the deaths of thousands of suspected opponents, closed down churches and presided over the economy's collapse as skilled citizens and foreigners fled the country. Aware of this trend, the Spanish began to increase efforts to prepare the country for independence and massively stepped up development. Acoustic guitar bands based on a Spanish model are the country's best-known indigenous popular tradition. Various accounts also named the United Kingdom's MI6, the United States' CIA, and Spain as tacit supporters of the coup attempt. Noncreolized Portuguese is used as liturgical language by local Catholics. Bioko Island is the northernmost part of Equatorial Guinea and is the site of the country's capital, Malabo. The US Agency for International Development entered into a memorandum of understanding (MOU) with Obiang, in April 2006, to establish a social development Fund in the country, implementing projects in the areas of health, education, women's affairs and the environment. Ref A EC 0 1E BDDD D10 EC E0B Ref B DXB 0EDGE01 1 Ref C 01 1 1T0 0 1 Z. In addition to that, he firmly stated that he was not affiliated with any political party. Very quickly the Biafran separatists were starved into submission without international backing. Forestry, farming, and fishing are also major components of GDP.  The tiny enclave was far smaller than what the Spaniards had considered themselves rightfully entitled to under their claims and the Treaty of El Pardo. According to Human Rights Watch, the dictatorship of President Obiang used an oil boom to entrench and enrich itself further at the expense of the country's people. The 1960s were a time of great optimism over the future of the former African colonies, and groups that had been close to European rulers, like the Bubi, were not viewed positively. Each case follows a common structure, starting from a depiction of their colonial history: this shows the differences between the colonial programs that were implemented in each territory, trying to give an answer to their cultural, social and geographical specificity. Every airline registered in Equatorial Guinea appears on the list of air carriers prohibited in the European Union (EU) which means that they are banned from operating services of any kind within the EU.  Human trafficking is a significant problem; the 2012 U.S. , In February 2012, Equatorial Guinea's foreign minister signed an agreement with the IILP on the promotion of Portuguese in the country. The city also offers numerous green and leisure areas. Education is free and compulsory for children between the ages of 6 and 14. Ciudad de la Paz is a planned city under construction in mainland Equatorial Guinea which was designed to replace Malabo as the capital. , The shipping agreement gave the Soviets permission for a pilot fishery development project and also a naval base at Luba. The British settled some 2,000 Sierra Leoneans and freed slaves there during their rule, and limited immigration from West Africa and the West Indies continued after the British left. A quarter of the entire population had fled abroad, they said, while 'the prisons are overflowing and to all intents and purposes form one vast concentration camp'. Shop Our Wares. The deterioration of the rural economy under successive brutal regimes has diminished any potential for agriculture-led growth. Despite the improved survival chances of Europeans living on the island, Mary Kingsley, who was staying on the island still described Fernando Pó as 'a more uncomfortable form of execution' for Spaniards appointed there. Macias Nguema signed a preferential trade agreement and a shipping treaty with the Soviet Union. 1 November 01 Estadio de Malabo Malabo Equatorial Guinea 1 November 01. It is located on the island of Bioko. This created a situation where during the election the ruling party's coalition did not provide the names of their candidates so effectively individuals were not running for office, instead the party was the one running for office. , In 2004 a plane load of suspected mercenaries was intercepted in Zimbabwe while allegedly on the way to overthrow Obiang. Equatorial Guinea consists of two parts, an insular and a mainland region. However, and despite speaking under duress and with clear signs of torture, Nsolo said that they had planned a peaceful protest and had indeed obtained all the legal authorizations required to carry out the peaceful protest. This is why you can see a lot of buildings with colonial architecture that simultaneously coexist with modern buildings built in the last and recent stage. There is also a gendarmerie, but the number of members is unknown. 1998. , In 1974 the World Council of Churches affirmed that large numbers of people had been murdered since 1968 in an ongoing reign of terror. , During the four decades of his rule, Obiang has shown little tolerance for opposition. The country gained independence from Spain in 1968 but old colonial ties remain strong, with Spanish still regarded as an official language and in common use by a population of around one and a quarter million residents. 2% of the population follows Islam (mainly Sunni). Campaigns were mounted to subdue the Fang people in the 1920s, at the time that Liberia was beginning to cut back on recruitment. 1 01 Malabo is Equatorial Guinea's capital city. The traditional demarcation line between Fang and 'Beach' (inland) ethnic groups was the village of Niefang (limit of the Fang), east of Bata. , The principal religion in Equatorial Guinea is Christianity, the faith of 93% of the population. , In 1995 Mobil, an American oil company, discovered oil in Equatorial Guinea.